Battery Simulators & Voltage Variations
Automotive electrical disturbances occur regularly in the vehicle primarily due to switching on and off of various vehicle components from the starter motor to electrical and electronic systems.
There are both emissions and immunity tests required by the standards, of which there are many. The main standards like ISO 7637-2 and ISO 16750-2 define both how these pulses must be simulated and how they are measured and with what limits. The vehicle manufacturers who are ultimately responsible often take these requirements and expand or modify them.