AKM600P Warpage Measurement Tool For Fan Out Wafer Level Packages (FOWLP)

Derived from the highly successful PS600S PCB thermal warpage tool, the AKM600P has been adapted for the Fan Out Wafer Level Packages (FOWLP) market. Capable of assessing wafer and panel sized samples, it will accommodate panels to 610 mm x 600 mm and to die level warpage. Calibration is performed against a traceable NIST standard.

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The AKM600P is based on the proven Shadow Moiré process utilised throughout the Akrometrix product range and is a warpage metrology solution specifically designed for the FOWLP market as it moves to panels. Derived from the existing PS600S PCB warpage metrology tool, it is capable of assessing both wafer sized and panel sized products. Its size and capacity mean that it can accommodate panels up to 610 mm x 600 mm, and wafers of any size. It is able to provide warpage metrology for samples of die, global wafer or panel form. Calibration is done with an NIST traceable standard (included).

Utilising the Shadow Moiré Technique for warpage metrology, the AKM600P is capable of Z-resolution down to 1.25 µm with full field of view imaging. This provides a Single Shot capture of the entire wafer/panel, regardless of size, competing favourably with competitive systems with small FOV’s or single point data capture.

Full Image capture takes less than 2 seconds. There is an optional oven for those applications needing warpage measurements over a temperature profile between room temperature and 300°C.

  • Measures surface warpage via Shadow Moiré technique
  • Single shot field of view
  • Z-resolution to 1.25 µm
  • Warpage resolution 2.5 µm
  • Temperature range of 26°C to 300°C
  • Thermal ramp rates up to 2°C per second
  • Capable of up to 600 mm x 600 mm sample
  • Full field measurement capture, less than 2 seconds
  • Up to 1.4 million data points
  • Automated Part Tracking for multiple samples per measurement cycle
Digital Fringe Projection

Flatness Measurement and Analysis Technique

The Digital Fringe Projection (DFP) technique compliments the shadow moiré technique by adding step height measurement capabilities at high data point density. This technique is particularly useful for measurement of connectors, sockets, assembled modules, and PCB local areas.

No grating is needed for the DFP technique, which helps with issues like outgassing and temperature uniformity sometimes seen with the shadow moiré technique. DFP also has the advantage of not being limited by data density, unlike the shadow moiré technique.

DFP has the disadvantage of warpage resolution being dependent on field of view. For this technique a field of view of 64x48mm, generating a measurement resolution of 5 microns, was chosen.

The strengths of the DFP measurement technique include:

  • Full field data acquired in less than 2 seconds
  • Able to measure sudden and large height changes up to nearly 20mm
  • High data point density

The DFP technique is offered as:

  • A DFP module on the AXP system
  • The base technology for the CXP system


Digital Image Correlation

In-plane strain and CTE measurement Technique

Digital Image Correlation (DIC) is a non-contact, full-field optical technique for measuring both in-plane and out-of-plane displacements of an object surface. A high contrast, random speckle pattern is applied to the surface of interest. Two cameras are mounted above the oven, viewing the sample from different angles.

Two simultaneous images from both cameras are digitized. Software identifies the same point on the surface from both perspectives, using pattern recognition of the speckles within a small pixel window. Using the principle of stereo triangulation, the spatial position of the pixel window relative to the cameras is determined in 3D space. Stepping the pixel window across the sample, the displacement of the surface can be mapped out in 3 axes.

The strengths of the DIC measurement technique include:

  • In-plane strain measurement at <150 microstrain
  • Calculate average surface CTE from strain and temperature data

The DIC technique is offered in the form of the DIC 2.0 module on the following Akrometrix tools:

  • AXP
  • PS200S


Shadow Moiré

Flatness Measurement and Analysis Technique

Shadow Moiré is a non-contact, full-field optical technique that uses geometric interference between a reference grating and its shadow on a sample to measure relative vertical displacement at each pixel position in the resulting image. It requires a Ronchi-ruled grating, a white line light source at approximately 45 degrees to the grating and a camera perpendicular to the grating. Its optical configuration is shown in the figure to the right. A technique, known as phase stepping, is applied to shadow moiré to increase measurement resolution and provide automatic ordering of the interference fringes. This technique is implemented by vertically translating the sample relative to the grating

The strengths of the shadow moiré measurement technique include:

  • Full field data acquired in less than 2 seconds
  • Resolution down to <1 micron
  • Resolution is unchanged by field of view
  • Highly robust with minimal moving parts

The shadow moiré technique is offered on the following Akrometrix tools:

  • AXP
  • PS200S
  • PS600S
  • AKM600P


Akrometrix Studio is an advanced set of integrated software modules that work together to run all Akrometrix equipment. The Studio software suite takes users from profile creation, through warpage measurement, temperature profiling, analysis of warpage data, and reporting seamlessly. Studio software users will have nearly the same experience in working with different Akrometrix measurement technologies and different Akrometrix measurement tools.

The Studio Suite is broken up into a series of programs that work together

Profile Generator: (Create temperature profiles)
  • Create thermal profiles graphically; ‘click’ to add temperature points and actions
  • Assign ramp rates, soak times and cool down periods using numerical settings
  • Set machine control action points by clicking on profile segments
    • Measurement points (capturing phase images)
    • Blower on/off points
    • Exhaust on/off points

Surface Measurement: (Measurement Setup)
  • Work from a live system view to setup multiple test parameters
  • Run multiple phase image and 3D measurement results windows concurrently
  • View displacement graphs and data when data is acquired
  • Work with multiple regions of interest
  • DIC, DFP, CRE6, and CM modules integrate seamlessly into the same workflow
  • Includes Part Tracking feature and option for Real Time Analysis (RTA) software

Thermal Profiler: (Measure warpage over temperature)
  • Uses test setup from Surface Measurement to apply over temperature
  • Load profiles from Profile Generator
  • Optimize thermal conditions: heater power, lower while heating
  • Immediate results feedback during profiling

Surface Analysis: (In-depth data processing)
  • Analyse and compare 2D and 3D data sets
    • View up to 2 million displacement data points on each graph
    • Control multiple graphs on-screen at once
    • Mask areas and burn masks permanently into phase images
    • Calculate one displacement data set relative to another
    • Export data for further analysis into computational applications such as ANSYS and MATLAB
    • Draw 2D chord lines across phase images at any angle
    • Zoom, rotate, crop and export 3D displacement graphs in multiple format

    Batch Processing

    • apply masks, filters, chords, rotation and other operations to hundreds of phase data sets, provide multiple output and export options for graphical and analytical analyses, and export data for use in Interface Analysis

Interface Analysis: Understanding Warpage Between Two Mating Surfaces

Surface-mount components warp during the reflow process, and the area where they attach also changes shape during assembly. This interface between components is where solder, paste, and gaps created due to thermal expansion combine to create 100% good products, or defects such as Head-in-Pillow, Shorts, and Opens. Fully understanding that critical interface between surfaces is more important than ever.

While standard Akrometrix software allowed the analysis of an individual surface, such as a PCB or BGA, Interface Analysis is new software that enables 3D, 2D, and statistical review of a complete interface. Users can now visualize and quantify exactly how two surfaces will mate together. By combining this feature with the ability to measure surfaces at each temperature point during reflow, solder joint formation or failure can be predicted much more easily.

Interface Analysis works with data supplied by any of the 250+ TherMoiré systems in use throughout the worldwide Electronics supply chain today. Introducing unique features such as Pass/Warning/Fail maps, and various gap and surface gauge information, Interface Analysis lets users see what is happening between two dynamic surfaces through the reflow process. Applications include SMT Assembly Planning and Troubleshooting, Failure Analysis, Supplier Qualification and Comparison, Ongoing SPC, Package Design, and FEA Modelling Validation.

Two Important application areas are Package-on-Package Design and Assembly and Package-to-PCB Design and Assembly

Real Time Analysis for Pass/Warning/Fail Decisions

Real Time Analysis (RTA) takes user input warning and failure gauge limits and gives immediate feedback on the region or regions that fall within desires performance. It is based on an easy to use recipe approach for up front processing and RTA is designed to scale to high volume applications, taking the analysis steps out of warpage measurements and going straight to decisions. It scales to hundreds of regions measured in only 2 seconds, gives tabular and visual output to users immediately after measurement.

Part Tracking

Part Tracking technology is a software application included in Akrometrix Surface Measurement that increases system throughput while reducing user to user and system to system measurement variation.  It automatically locates, crops, and rotates measured samples. Part Tracking uses edge recognition technology to locate a part in space and automatically crop/rotate the sample for processing of the found surface area. It increases system throughput by reducing setup time, improves run to run repeatability, and improves system to system and user to user reproducibility. It has all the Shadow Moire tools as standard.

Akrometrix General Brochure